Copyright (c) 1996 Maney
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Henrik Ibsen appears to have chosen or even invented many of his characters' names in order to signal to his audiences something about the characters. Although the meanings contained in the names are usually transparent to Scandinavian audiences, most remain opaque to English-speakers, who now constitute Ibsen's largest audience. The problem of how to deal with personal names, especially whether or not they should be translated, literally or metaphorically, is more general than Ibsen or Norwegian and extends to all literature translated from one language into another. Aspects of this problem are explored and several possible solutions are proposed.
- Aaltonen, Sirkku. 1985. “Translations of Proper Names with Special Reference to Brendan Behans Borstal Boy and Its Swedish Translation Borstapojken (by Thomas Warburton).” Moderna Sprȧk 79: 11–19, 117-127.
- Akerholt, May Brit. 1980. “Henrik Ibsen in English Translation.” The Languages of Theatre: Problems in the Translation and Transposition of Drama. Ed. Ortrun Zuber. Oxford: Pergamon Press, 104–120.
- Arrowsmith, William. 1961. “The Lively Conventions of Translation.” In Arrowsmith and Shattuck, 122–140.
- Arrowsmith, William and Roger Shattuck, eds. 1961. The Craft and Context of Translation. Austin: U of Texas P,122–140.
- Bantas, Andrei. 1994. “Names, Nicknames, and Titles in Translation.” Perspectives: Studies in Translatology 1: 79–87.
- Haugen, Einar. 1979. Ibsen’s Drama: Author to Audience. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P.
- Hermans, Theo. 1988. “On Translating Proper Names, with Reference to De Witte and Max Havelaar.” Modern Dutch Studies: Essays in Honor of Peter Kin. Eds. Michael Wintle and Paul Vincent. London and Atlantic Highlands, NJ: The Athlone P,11–24.
- Hollander, Lee M. 1954. “The Problem of the Proper Translation of Old Norse Names.” Scandinavian Studies 26.3: 125–129.
- Ibsen, Henrik. 1962. Nutidsdramaer 1877–99 [Samlede Verker, vol. 3]. Oslo: Gyldendal Norsk Forlag.
- Ibsen, Henrik. 1965. Four Major Plays. Trans. Rolf Fjelde. New York: New American Library.
- Jakobson, Roman. 1959. “On Linguistic Aspects of Translation.” On Translation. Ed. Reuben Arthur Brower. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 232–239.
- Jesperson, Otto. 1924. The Philosophy of Grammar. New York: Holt.
- Metthiessen, F. O. and Kenneth B. Murdock, eds. 1961. The Notebooks of Henry James. New York: Oxford UP.
- Meyer, Michael. 1971. Ibsen: A Biography. Garden City: Doubleday.
- Newmark, Peter. 1981. Approaches to Translation. Oxford: Pergamon.
- Newmark, Peter. 1993. Paragraphs on Translation. Philadelphia: Multilingual Matters.
- OED. The Oxford English Dictionary. 1933. Oxford: Clarendon.
- Pulgram, Ernst. 1954. Theory of Names. Berkeley, CA: American Name Society.
- Translating or Recreating?: Symposium on Literary Translation. 19 April 1993. Center for Nordic Studies, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN.
- Simpson, Hassell. 1993. “A Pair of Desert Saints: Name Symbolism in Peter Shaffer’s Equus.” Names 41: 183–193.
- van den Toorn, M. C. 1986. “Samenstellingen met Eigennamen in de Germaanse Talen, Special in het Nederland.” Glot 9.1–2: 119.
- Winter, Werner. 1961. “Impossibilities of Translation.” Arrowsmith and Shattuck, 68–82.
- Zabeeh, Farhang. 1968. What Is in a Name? The Hague: Nijhoff.