Copyright (c) 2014 Maney Publishing
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
The camel’s cultural importance among the nomads of Arabia can be attributed to its critical role over the centuries in ensuring the people’s survival. Its status explains the herders’ detailed knowledge of the animal and their breeding expertise. As a result, an extensive classification system of camel naming prevails among Bedouin Arabs. The category names assigned, in particular to the females, serve as “information packages” that transmit traditional knowledge from one generation to the next. Apparent name-loss among a younger and more urbanized generation thus reflects an erosion of this once vital knowledge. It is hoped that recording a wide range of female camel names here, and documenting their classification, will help towards the preservation of such an important knowledge system.
- Al-Farāhīdi al-Khalīl bin Aḥmad. 2001. Kitāb al-cAyn. Beirut: Dar Ehia Al-Tourath Al-Arabi.
- Al-Thacālibī Abu Manṣūr Abdulmalik bin Muhammad. 2002. Fiqh al-Lugha wa Asrār al-cArabiyya. Beirut: Al Maktaba Al Assriya.
- Anderson Myrdene. 1978. Sami Ethnoecology: Resource Management in Norwegian Lapland. Ann Arbor, Mich.: University Microfilms International.
- Berkes Fikret Colding Johan and Folke Carl. 2000. “Rediscovery of Traditional Ecological Knowledge as Adaptive Management.” Ecological Applications 10: 1251–1262.
- Berkes Fikret. 2012. Sacred Ecology. 3rd ed. New York: Routledge.
- Berlin Brent and Kay Paul. 1969. Basic Color Terms: Their Universality and Evolution. Berkeley: University of California Press.
- Bowerman, M. 1996. “Learning how to Structure Space for Language: A Crosslinguistic Perspective.” Language and Space. Ed. Bloom P., Peterson M. A., Nadel L., and Garrett M. F.. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 385–436.
- Brauer, Ralph W. 1993. “The Camel and its Role in Shaping Mideastern Nomad Societies.” Comparative Civilizations Review 28: 106–151.
- Dwyer, Peter D. 1976. “An Analysis of Rofaifo Mammal Taxonomy.” American Ethnologist 3: 425–445.
- Eades, Domenyk, Watson Janet C. E., and Ahmad Al-Mahri Mohammed. 2013. “Camel Culture and Camel Terminology among the Omani Bedouin.” Journal of Semitic Studies 58: 169–186.
- ElMahi, Ali Tigani. 2013. In the Absence of Archaeology: Nomadic Camel Pastoralists in Dhofar. Muscat: Sultan Qaboos University, forthcoming.
- Faye, Bernard. 2005. “Dairy Productivity Potential of Camels.” Desertification Combat and Food Safety: The Added Value of Camel Producers. Ed. Faye Bernard and Esenov Palmated. Amsterdam: IOS Press, 127–134.
- Gadgil, Madhav, Seshagiri Rao P. R., Utkarsh G., Pramod P., and Chhatre Ashwini. 2000. “New Meanings for Old Knowledge: The People’s Biodiversity Registers Programme.” Ecological Applications 10: 1307–1317.
- Gilchrist, Grant, Mallory Mark, and Merkel Flemming. 2005. “Can Local Ecological Knowledge Contribute to Wildlife Management? Case Studies of Migratory Birds.” Ecology and Society 10: 20. [Accessed June 28 2013].
- Harrison, K. David. 2007. When Languages Die: The Extinction of the World’s Languages and the Erosion of Human Knowledge. New York: Oxford University Press Inc.
- Hashi, Ahmed Mohamed. 1988. The Role of Camel Production in Dry Lands with Reference to Somalia. Camel Forum Working Paper, no. 25. Uppsala, Sweden: Nordiska Afrikainst.
- Manẓūr Ibn. 1999. Lisān al-cArab. Beirut: Dar Ehia Al-Tourath Al-Arabi.
- Ingham, Bruce. 1990. “Camel Terminology among the Al Murrah Bedouins.” Zeitschrift für Arabische Linguistik 22: 67–78.
- Irwin, Robert, 2010. Camel. London: Reaktion Books.
- Kadim, Isam T. and Mahgoub Osman. 2005. “Camelid Genetic Resources: A Report on Three Arabian Gulf Countries.” In Current Status of Genetic Resources, Recording and Production Systems in African, Asian, and American Camelids-Proceedings of the ICAR/FAO Seminar, May 30, 2004. Ed. Cardellino R., Rosati A., and Mosconi C.. Rome, Italy: ICAR Technical Series, 81–92.
- Kay, Paul, Berlin Brent, Maffi Luisa, and Merrifield William. 1997. “Color Naming across Languages.” Color Categories in Language and Thought. Ed. Hardin C. L. and Maffi Luisa. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 21–56.
- Lizarralde, Manuel. 2001. “Biodiversity and Loss of Indigenous Languages and Knowledge in South America.” On Biocultural Diversity. Ed. Maffi Luisa. Washington, DC: Smithsonian, 265–281.
- Maffi, Luisa. 1998. “Language: A Resource for Nature. Nature and Resources.” UNESCO Journal on the Environment and Natural Resources Research 34: 12–21.
- Maffi, Luisa. 2005. “Linguistic, Cultural and Biological Diversity.” Annual Review of Anthropology 34: 599–617.
- Malt, Barbara C., Sloman Steven A., Gennari Silvia, Shi Meiyi, and Wang Yuan. 1999. “Knowing Versus Naming: Similarity and the Linguistic Categorization of Artifacts.” Journal of Memory and Language 40: 230–262.
- Malt, Barbara C., Sloman Steven A., and Gennari Silvia P. 2003. “Universality and Language Specificity in Object Naming.” Journal of Memory and Language 49: 20–42.
- Marx, Emanuel. 2006. “The Political Economy of Middle Eastern and North African Pastoral Nomads.” In Nomadic Societies in the Middle East and North Africa: Entering the 21st Century. Ed. Chatty Dawn. Leiden: Brill, 78–97.
- Pawley, Andrew. 2001. “Some Problems of Describing Linguistic and Ecological Knowledge.” On Biocultural Diversity: Linking Language, Knowledge, and the Environment. Ed. Maffi Luisa. Washington and London: Smithsonian Institution Press, 228–247.
- Pilgrim, Sarah, Smith David, and Pretty Jules. 2007. “A Cross-Regional Assessment of the Factors Affecting Ecoliteracy: Implications for Policy and Practice.” Ecological Applications 17: 1742–1751.
- Pilgrim, Sarah, Cullen Leanne C., Smith David J., and Pretty Jules. 2008. “Ecological Knowledge is Lost in Wealthier Communities and Countries.” Environmental Science and Technology 42: 1004–1009.
- Ryding, Karin C. 2005. A Reference Grammar of Modern Standard Arabic. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Simpson, George Gaylord. 1961. Principles of Animal Taxonomy. New York: Columbia University Press.
- Skutnabb-Kangas, Tove, Maffi Luisa, and Harmon David. 2003. Sharing a World of Difference: The Earth’s Linguistic, Cultural, and Biological Diversity. Paris: UNESCO Publishing.
- Stetkevych, Suzanne Pinckney. 1993. The Mute Immortals Speak: Pre-Islamic Poetry and Poetics of Ritual. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press.
- Wierzbicka, Anna. 1992. Semantics, Culture, and Cognition: Universal Human Concepts in Culture-Specific Configurations. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
- Zent, Stanford. 2001. “Acculturation and Ethnobotanical Knowledge Loss among the Piaroa of Venezuala.” On Biocultural Diversity. Ed. Maffi Luisa. Washington, DC: Smithsonian, 190–211.