Copyright (c) 1993 Maney
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Frequencies of first names given in Pennsylvania in 1960 and 1990 were used to identify 33 unisex names, given with substantial frequency to both sexes. According to earlier books of names for babies, most of the unisex names were given to boys. In 1990 most of the same names were given to more girls than boys. The findings support previous studies that names tend to evolve from masculine to unisex to feminine. Popularity of unisex names is usually brief. Most names given to a substantial number of boys and girls in one of the two years, 1960 or 1990, had low frequencies of one sex or both sexes in the other year.
- Ashley, Leonard R. N. What’s in a Name? Baltimore, MD: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1989.
- Barry, Herbert, III, and Aylene S. Harper. “Evolution of Unisex Names.” Names 30 (1982): 15–22.
- Barry, Herbert, III, and Aylene S. Harper. “Sex Differences in Linguistic Origins of Personal Names,” pp. 243–260 in E. Wallace McMullen (ed.) Names New and Old. Madison, NJ: Penny Press, 1993.
- Bem, Sandra L. The Lenses of Gender. New Haven: Yale UP, 1993.
- Etaugh, C., and M. B. Liss, “Home, School, and Playroom: Training Grounds for Adult Gender Roles.” Sex Roles 26 (1990): 129–147.
- Hort, B. E., B. I. Fagot, and M. D. Leinbach. “Are People’s Notions of Maleness More Stereotypically Framed than their Notions of Femaleness? Sex Roles 23 (1990): 197–212.
- Kitchin, Moyna. Choosing a Name. Secaucus, NJ: Chartwell Books,1979.
- Kolatch, Alfred J. Names for Boys and Girls. New York: Jonathan David, 1969.
- Lansky, Bruce, and Vicki Lansky. The Best Baby Name Book. Wayzata, MN: Meadowbrook Press,1979.
- Loughead, Flora L. Dictionary of Given Names. Glendale, CA: Arthur H. Clark Co.,1933.
- Martin, C. L. “Attitudes and Expectations about Children with Nontraditional and Traditional Gender Roles,” Sex Roles 23 (1990): 97–212.
- Partridge, Eric. Name This Child. London: Methuen, 1936.
- Prenner, Manuel. “Ora Jones Married Ora Jones.” American Speech 17 (1942), 84–88.
- Rickel, Annette U., and Lynn R. Anderson. “Name Ambiguity and Androgyny.” Sex Roles 7 (1981), 1057–1066.
- Rossi, Alice S. “Naming Children in Middle-Class Families.” American Sociological Review 19 (1965), 129–146.
- Siegel, Sidney. Nonparametric Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences. New York: McGraw-Hill,1956.
- Slovenko, Ralph. “Unisex and Cross-Sex Names.” Journal of Psychiatry & Law 14 (1986), 249–326.
- Smith, Elsdon C. The Story of our Names. New York: Crowell, 1950.
- SPSS Inc. SPSSX Users Guide, 2nd ed. Chicago: SPSS, 1986.
- Wells, Evelyn. What to Name the Baby. New York: Doubleday, 1946.
- Yonge, Charlotte M. History of Christian Names, 2nd ed. London: Macmillan, 1884.