Vol. 38 No. 4 (1990)
Research Article

Nicknames: An Annotated Bibliography

Published 1990-12-01



For an annatated nicknames bibliagraphy, I drew items fram the general names bibliagraphies af Smith (1952) and Lawsan (1987). To this list I added a number af new items, bringing the tatal to.abaut 320, cavering a time range far the use af nicknames fram the ancient Egyptians to the present and a braad spectrum af madern ethnic graups and sacieties.


  1. Abbatt, William. “American Nicknames and American Sobriquets.” Colloquial Who’s Who 1 (1924): 49–85.
  2. A list. Fair. (Smith)
  3. Abbatt, William. “English Sobriquets and English Nicknames.” Colloquial Who’s Who 2 (1925): 117–21.
  4. A list. Poor. (Smith)
  5. Abbatt, William. “American Nicknames.” Chambers’s Journal 13 (1875): 171–73.
  6. Nicknames of peoples, persons, and places. Poor. (Smith)
  7. “About Names and Nicknames.” All the Year Round 20 May 1882: 321–24.
  8. Interesting. Fair. (Smith)
  9. Alexander, Raphael. The Nickname System for Remembering Names. New York: Exceptional Books, 1971.
  10. Development of a system for creating nicknames to remember surnames. Examples include Knead Dougherty, Candy Mintz. Thousands of examples.
  11. Alexander, Ron. “How Famous Nicknames Were Born.” New York Times 6 July 1983: C10.
  12. Includes Happy Rockefeller, Bubbles Sills, Skipper Campbell and Bhu Berke.
  13. Allen, Harold B. “Nicknaming in Egyptian Arabic.” Names 4 (1956): 75–82.
  14. Most Egyptian nicknames have a direct relationship with the first name (Hamada for Hamdi or Mohammed); others have no direct relationship to the name itself but to the person’s physical appearance, e.g., Filfil ‘black pepper.’ Also includes girls’ nicknames, about 100 in all.
  15. Allen, Irving Lewis. “Personal Names that Became Ethnic Epithets.” Names 31 (1983): 307–17.
  16. A systematic description and evaluation of how personal names became ethnic epithets as a function of conflict in the cultural differences between groups in America. Begins with ethnic epithets like Mike and Murphy for Irishmen, to Ivan for Russian men, then goes on to the social origins of the name vocabulary, loanwords from other cultures, cultural allusions, and stereotyping (calling black men George, James, Leroy)i 17 references. Dutch abstract.
  17. Aman, Reinhold. “Bavarian Terms of Abuse Derived from Common Names.” Maledicta 1 (1983): 212–17.
  18. Listing with origin of about 40 common Bavarian names used in a deprecatory manner, e.g., Efal ‘a young, simple-minded woman’ (
  19. Aman, Reinhold, and George Monteiro. “Portuguese Nicknames.” Maledicta 3 (1979): 69–70.
  20. Listing with meaning and derivation of about 50 colorful nicknames such as Cabreiro ‘goatherd,’ Gago ‘stutterer,’ and Frangalha ‘loose chicken.’ One reference.
  21. Ames, Jay. “The Nicknames of Jay Ames.” Nomina 5 (1981): 80–81.
  22. Also appeared under the title “Nicknames” in The Name Gleaner [Canada] 7 (1982): 7–8. Anecdotal report of the large variety of nicknames borne by the Canadian author [apparently red-haired].
  23. Anderson, Myrdene. “Proper Names, Naming, and Labeling in Saami.” Anthropological Linguistics 26 (1984): 186–201.
  24. The Saami (also known as Lapps) live mostly in Norway, Sweden, and Finland. This investigation was done in the Finnmark county of Norway. While the study deals with first names and surnames, page 196 mentions nickname usage. References.
  25. Antal, Laszlo. “Remarks on Hungarian Nicknames.” Ural-Altäische JahrbücherJUral-Altaic Yearbook 60 (1988): 7–11.
  26. This article really deals with affectionate forms of names rather than nicknames.
  27. Aquilina, J. “A Comparative Study in Lexical Material Relating to Nicknames and Surnames.” Journal of Maltese Studies 2 (1964): 147–76.
  28. Scholarly presentation of the evolution of earlier Maltese surnames from Semitic (Hebrew and Arabic) stock and later Maltese names from Romance stock. Listings of names in several categories. Many examples.
  29. Ashley, Leonard R. N. “Pomp and its Circumstances.” Names 15 (1967): 85–110.
  30. Explains titles and epithets to describe rulers (mostly English) from 800. Examples include Henry VIII (Defender of the Faith), Elizabeth I (Virgin Queen), and William IV (Silly Billy). Eight references.
  31. Ashley, Leonard R. N. “‘Lovely, Blooming, Fresh, and Gay’: the Onomastics of Camp.” Maledicta 4 (1980): 223–48.
  32. Listing and discussion of a number of sexual slang names in the US and Britain, e.g., Abigail ‘a conservative auntie’; Adam ‘one’s first trick.’ Twelve references.
  33. Ashley, Leonard R. N. “Every Tom, Dick and Harry.” Word Ways 2 May 1982: 94–95.
  34. Twenty-item quiz (with answers) on meaning of slang names such as Holy Joe ‘chaplain in the armed forces.’
  35. Barrett, Richard A. “Village Modernization and Changing Nickname Practices in Northern Spain.” Journal of Anthropological Research 34 (1978): 92–108.
  36. In the village of Benabarre (pop. 1,000) in the pre-Pyrenees area of Huesca Province, nicknames are more widely used than surnames in eveiyday interaction. A sample shows that 83% of nicknames are inherited, e.g., Corvet ‘little crow,’ and 17% are personal, e.g, La Puncha ‘the thorn,’ given to a woman who nags her husband. With modernization, surnames may be used more.
  37. Baumann, Klaus-Dieter. “Proper Names and Personal Group Names in the Historiographical Special Text.” XV. Internationaler Kongress fuer Namenforschung, 1984. Leipzig: 1985. 3: 13–20.
  38. Analysis of seven different types of educational material, such as texts, scientific reviews, and historical essays, indicates that some appellatives such as Good Queen Bess (Queen Elizabeth) and The Wisest Fool (James I) indicate evaluative connotations. He also discusses group names, e.g., Marxists, Luddites. Six references.
  39. Bell, Robert A., Nancy L. Buerkel-Rothfuss, and Kevin E. Gore. ‘“Did You Bring the Yarmulke for the Cabbage Patch Kid?*: The Idiomatic Communication of Young Lovers.” Human Communication Research 14 (1987): 47–67.
  40. couples were tested on various measures. Among the aspects of communication were nicknames invented for each other and for others. Included are Pookers, Special K, and Long Duck Dong. References.
  41. Bentley, Jeffery Westwood. “Ethnographic Study of a Rural Parish in Northwest Portugal.” Dissertation Abstracts International 47 (1987): 2633A.
  42. University of Arizona. One chapter devoted to nicknames suggests that they express an ideal of equality in a community were there are material differences.
  43. Berger, Josef. “And Why Nicknames?” New York Times Magazine 16 Apr. 1961: 64ff.
  44. Taboo on President Kennedy’s nickname. General on nicknames of prominent individuals including: Dorothea (Dolley) Madison, James (Ten-Cent Jimmy) Buchanan, and Jerome (Dizzy) Dean.
  45. Berrey, Lester V., and Melvin Van den Bark. The American Thesaurus of Slang: A Complete Reference Book. 2nd ed. New York: Crowell, 1953.
  46. Pages 342–99 contain hundreds of slang/epithet terms for people, including Joe, Tom, Brother Jonathan, Vanishing American, Sweeney, and Alfalfa Grower.
  47. Berry, J. “Some Preliminary Notes on Ada Personal Nomenclature.” African Language Studies [London] 1 (1960): 177–84.
  48. The Adali are a tribe in present Ghana. Description of their naming system with examples. There are Tiwi and Ewe elements in their names. Types of names include theophoric, toponymie, patronymic, birth-names, nicknames, clan-names, pet-names, and phrase names.
  49. Bertrand, Gary. “Cajun Nicknames and Other Words.” Studies in Slang. Vol. 1. Frankfurt: Peter Lang,1985. 68–70.
  50. Not yet seen.
  51. Birnbach, Lisa. The Official Preppy Handbook. New York: Workman, 1980.
  52. Page 12 shows the twelve most popular nicknames (with origins) for boys and girls. Included are Skip, Chip, and Kip for males; Muffy, Buffy, and Bootsy for females.
  53. Boardman, Fon W., Jr. “Political Name Calling.” American Speech 15 (1940): 353–56.
  54. On Pegler, Ickes, and Johnson calling names. Fair. (Smith)
  55. Boardman, Fon W., Jr. “Boys’ Nicknames.” American Notes and Queries 15 Feb. 1890: 190–91.
  56. Short. Fair. (Smith)
  57. Boissevain, Jeremy. Saints and Fireworks: Religion and Politics in Rural Malta. London: Athlone P; New York: Humanities P, 1965.
  58. Brief mention (p. 37) that when a man moves to his wife’s village, he usually does not acquire a village nickname but is either known as the husband of his wife or by his native village’s name. (Apparently, the children do receive nicknames.)
  59. Botkin, Benjamin Albert. “Names and Nicknames.” A Treasury of New England Folklore. New York, 1947.
  60. Includes a chapter (796–803) on nicknames. Fair. (Smith)
  61. Boyet, Aggie. “What Siblings Call Each Other.” Love and Wrestling, Butch and O. K. Ed. Fred Tarpley. Commerce. TX: South Central Names Institute, Publication 2,1973. 21–27.
  62. Results of a questionnaire administered to students at four colleges as to what they called their siblings. For Brother, there were 25 variations, e.g., Brother, Bubba, Buddy; for Sister, 17 variations, including Sister, Sis, Sissy. Other appellations are from animals: Beaver, Pig, Mouse, Kitty, Fat Cat, and Hen; from insects: Bug, Termite; from birds: Crow, Crane; from foods: Punkin, Candy; and others.
  63. Breen, Richard. “Naming Practices in Western Ireland.” Man 17 (1982): 701–13.
  64. Breen tallied first names and middle names from parish registers of Tuogh from 1925–1950. The regular naming pattern is to name the first two children of each sex after the grandparents, later children after relatives. Middle names are saints’ names. Nicknames have been more short-lived in Tuogh compared with the report of Fox (1963) on the Tory Islanders.
  65. Brogger, Jan. Montaverese. Bergen, Norway: Universitetsforlaget,1970.
  66. Pages 87–92 (references on 158) describe research in this Calabrian village in southern Italy on nicknames. A nickname can be acquired by a man and transmitted to his children. The table shows 42 nicknames with the meanings for 28 of them. Examples include Pilato ‘Pilate’ for a man who refused to take a stand, Cazicalati ‘trousers down,’ and Fattogiorno ‘already daytime’ for a farm worker who regularly slept late in the morning.
  67. Brown, P. W. F. “Some Semantics on Onomancy.” Names 4 (1956): 39–45.
  68. Discusses the development of nicknames with examples of nick-sumames from Wales. Further discussion of common nicknames such as Topper Brown and Nobby Clark and their derivations. Twelve references.
  69. Brunvand, Jan Harold. “Introduction [to Special Issue on Names in Folklore].” Names 16 (1968): 197–206.
  70. Review of research on names in folklore. Includes nicknames, ethnic names, names in stories, etc. 55 references.
  71. Buckham, John Wright. “Names, Nicknames and Titles.” Educational Forum 9 Nov. 1944:100–03.
  72. Fair. (Smith)
  73. Busse, Thomas V. “Nickname Usage in an American High School.” Names 31 (1983): 300–06.
  74. In answer to a questionnaire on nicknames, 114 boys and 149 girls at a high school in the Northeast responded on their nicknames. Of the boys, 58% reported having a nickname; of the girls, 40%. The largest category for the boys was the one that had variations or short forms of the last name (19%), such as Mort for Moriarty. The next category was those nicknames based upon physical characteristics, 8%, such as Torch or Shorty. The remaining boys had names of varied origins. For girls, physical characteristics ranked first; last name variations, 5%. Of the boys, 13% did not know why they received their nicknames; of the girls, 6%. A number of examples are given. Six references. German abstract.
  75. Busse, Thomas V. The Professor’s Book of First Names. Elkins Park, PA: Green Ball P,1984.
  76. A general work on first names. Among topics covered are popularity of names, trends, nicknames, and gender ambiguous names. Integrates empirical research of Busse and his co-workers. Approximately 100 references.
  77. Caldiero, Allisandru. “Nciurii: Sicilian Nicknames.” Maledicta 1 (1983): 217–18.
  78. Listing of thirteen colorful Sicilian nicknames with explanations, e.g., “Vincenzo Aricchiazza, Era ladiu cu l’aricchi ’ranni” (Vinny Bigears, he was ugly and had big ears). One reference.
  79. Campbell, J. K. HonouriFamilyiand Patronage: A Study of Institutions and Moral Values in a Greek Mountain Community. Oxford: Clarendon P, 1964.
  80. The Sarakatsani shepherds and their families (about 4,000 people) live during the summer in Zagori, a mountainous district northeast of Jannina in the Epirus province. In winter they move down from the mountains. Among their naming customs: after marriage a woman is called by the feminine form of her husband’s first name (186); the godfather names the child (220) although usually after one of the grandparents or a saint whose day is on the day the baptism occurs; the community may stop using a man’s surname if it is felt he has married beneath him,or has lost his wealth (300–01); and nicknames may be either flattering or ridiculing (315).
  81. Casual Essays of the Sun: Editorial Articles on Many Subjects, Clothed with the Philosophy of the Bright Side of Things. A few editorials, chiefly on nicknames, which appeared in the New York Sun from 1886 to 1901.
  82. Poor. (Smith)
  83. Chapman, Charlotte Gower. Milocca: A Sicilian Village. Cambridge, MA: Schenkman, 1971.
  84. In 1928, Chapman studied this village (then with a population of 2,500) in the southwest comer of Sicily. She lists (236–238) about 60 nicknames of three main types: personal (unique to that individual), location, and personal (applicable to more than one individual). Examples include Vapuretto ‘little steamboat’ (for a fat priest who huffed and puffed), Navisi ‘from Navo,’ and Mangia Lasagni ‘eats noodles.’
  85. Christian, William A. Person and God in a Spanish Valley. New York: Seminar P, 1972.
  86. Christian, who spent time in several villages in the Namsa Valley of northern Spain, describes (22–27) types of nicknames (physical, personality characteristic, event, inherited) and their function, with a few examples. He points out (26–27): “Women and men like to be called by their given name, not their nickname,and I sense here partly a fear of losing control.”
  87. Christiansen, Norman Henrik. “A Preliminary Contribution to an Understanding of the Use of Playfulness in Family Therapy.” Dissertation Abstracts International 46 (1986): 1517A. University of Massachusetts.
  88. He includes nicknames as one aspect of playfulness.
  89. Christodoulou, G. N., et al. “Peptic Ulcer in Childhood: Psychological Factors.” Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics 32 (1979): 297–301.
  90. In a study of children with peptic ulcers, it was reported that 7 of the 30 had nicknames. None of the controls did. No mention of examples or type of nickname.
  91. Clark, Cecily. “The Middle English Nickname Kepeharm.” Nomina 5 (1981): 94.
  92. Not yet seen.
  93. Clark, Cecily. “Nickname-Creation: Some Sources of Evidence, ‘Naive’ Memoirs Especially.” Nomina 5 (1981): 83–94.
  94. Draws on sources from as far back as the twelfth century to provide examples of nicknames and explanations of how the names were bestowed. The more than 100 names include Paul Bootlace, Slap-Arse Wharton, and Searchlight Charlie. 25 references.
  95. Clark, Cecily. “Thoughts on the French Connections of Middle-English Nicknames.” Nomina 2 (1978): 38–44.
  96. Discussion and comment on why there appears to be such a strong French influence on Middle English nicknames. Over 60 references.
  97. Clark, Cecily, and Dorothy Owen. “Lexicographical Notes from King’s Lynn.” Norfolk Archaeology 37 (1978): 56–69.
  98. Draws on burgesses’ names in the Pipe Roll for 1166 and two unpublished sources, the Trinity Gild of Lynn list (about the same time), and the confraternity list of the Hospital of St. Mary Magdalen at Gaywood (c. 1300). Comments on 26 early medieval bynames. Names mentioned include Agnes le Candilwif ‘female candle-merchant,’ Simon Milnemus ‘mouse in a mill.’ The backgrounds of an additional 35 listed names are less clear.
  99. Clark, Thomas L. “Noms de felt: Names in Gambling.” Names 34 (1986): 11–29.
  100. Clark differentiates between nicknames (derived from childhood or background: Chip, Pub, Chicago Mike) and monickers (from professional activity, gambling: Wizard, Suitcase Murphy, Door Card Charlie)i He categorizes 58 names from a tournament and describes pen names as well as types of players: C-Note Charlie (one who uses $100 bills), Jonah (one who brings bad luck). References.
  101. Cleveland, Ray L. “A Comment on the ‘Floral Nicknames’ in the Geniza Documents.” Journal of the American Oriental Society 93 (1973): 200–02.
  102. Responding to Goitein’s statement about “floral nicknames,” which were difficult to explain, points out that contemporary Arabic uses these words as collectives, i. e., qamha ‘stalk of wheat,’ not ‘a kernel of wheat’; fula [fool-a] ‘bean plant,’ not ‘a single bean.’
  103. Cohen, Eugene N. “Nicknames, Social Boundaries, and Community in an Italian Village.” International Journal of Contemporary Sociology 14 (1977): 102–13.
  104. Description of nicknaming patterns in Collefiore (pop. 750), a community in Southern Tuscany about 150 km. north of Rome. Cohen concludes that “Nicknames operate as boundary-defining and boundary-maintaining mechanisms for groups to whom separateness, difference, and distinctions are of particular value and importance.”
  105. Collier, George A., and Victoria R. Bricker. “Nicknames and Social Structure in Zinacantan.” American Anthropologist 72 (1970): 289–302.
  106. Zinacantan (pop. 7,650) is a Tzotzil-speaking township in Chaiapas, the southernmost province bordering Guatamala. Systematic evaluation of naming practices, including nicknames. One conclusion is that nicknames are becoming formal names by replacing Indian surnames. Comparisons with eighteenth-century data. Many examples, some humorous.
  107. “Confronting Jailed Suspect with Perpetrator’s Nickname was Interrogation.” Criminal Law Reporter: Court Decisions 40.
  108. Not yet seen.
  109. Connolly, Michael Coleman. “The Irish Longshoremen of Portland, Maine, 1880–1923.” Dissertation Abstracts International 49 (1989): 3116A. Boston College.
  110. Includes extensive list of nicknames.
  111. Cooper, Thomas. “On Political Nicknames.” Political Essays. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, 1800.14–24.
  112. Poor. (Smith)
  113. Costa, Frank Joseph, and Douglas Radcliff-Umstead. “Nicknaming Among the Calabrese.” Onoma 17 (1975): 492–503.
  114. Nicknames acquired in a town in Calabria, Italy, survive as social identification in Pittsburgh. Among the 26 examples are Pinnatu ‘hairless,’ Ziggaru ‘cigar,’ and Cagnolinu ‘puppy.’ Three references.
  115. Cowan, John F. “Nicknames of French Monarchs.” Education 19 (1899): 500–02.
  116. Interesting. Poor. (Smith)
  117. Creighton, Helen. “Cape Breton Nicknames and Tales.” Folklore in Action: Essays for Discussion in Honour of MacEdward Leach. Ed. Horace P. Beck. Philadelphia: American Folklore Society, 1962. 71–76.
  118. Nicknames are extensively used in Cape Breton, Nova Scotia, by Scots-descended people since there is a limited number of surnames, such as MacDonaldiMaclsaac, and MacMillan. Creighton lists about 50 nicknames, including Big John, Jack the Butcher, Maggie the Lighthouse, and Jim the Wig.
  119. Crocombe, R. G., and Vaine Rere. “Naming in Atiu.” Journal of the Polynesian Society 68 (1959): 180–87.
  120. Description of naming customs in the one of the Cook Islands (in the Pacific near New Zealand). Includes death names (to commemorate the death of a relative), and nicknames. Older naming customs dying out.
  121. Crummer, Marjorie, comp. Bibliography of American Folklore: Index of Materials in Books on Select American Folk Characters. Hyattsville, MD: Prince George’s County Memorial Library System,1975. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 117 727).
  122. Lists books in children’s literature related to 200 real or imagined characters. Includes Peter Stuyvesant (Peg Leg Peter), Annie Oakley (Little Sure Shot), and William F. Cody (Buffalo Bill).
  123. “Curiosities of Nomenclature.” Chambers’s Journal 65 (5th ser. 5) (1888): 278–81.
  124. On nicknames appled to famous men, chiefly in early times. Interesting. Good. (Smith)
  125. Cutileiro, Jose. AiPortuguese Rural Society. Oxford: Clarendon P, 1971.
  126. Passing mention (135) of how nicknames function as a form of social control in a small village in southeast Portugal near the Spanish border. Thus, a man perceived as bad is called (ironically) The Jesuit.
  127. Dawson, Lawrence H. Nicknames and Pseudonyms. London: Routledge; New York: Dutton, 1908.
  128. A small dictionary with identifications. Fair. (Smith)
  129. de Pina-Cabral, João. See Pina-Cabral, João de.
  130. Deane, Fannie Parmelee. Nicknames and Pseudonyms of Prominent People. New Philadephia, OH: O. R. Parmelee,1897.
  131. A list with the names and dates of the persons bearing them. Fair. (Smith)
  132. Deane, Fannie Parmelee. “Distinction Names.” Chambers’s Journal 74 (5th ser. 14) (1897): 581–583.
  133. Nicknames in a small fishing village in England. Very interesting. Good. (Smith)
  134. DeCosson, C. A. “On Some Italian Surnames.” Anglo-Italian Review [London] 2 Oct. 1918: 179–82.
  135. Points out that most ancient Italian families bear descriptive, or nickname, surnames. Good. (Smith)
  136. Dexter, Emily S. “Three Items Related to Personality: Popularity, Nicknames, and Homesickness.” Journal of Social Psychology 30 (1949): 155–58.
  137. Students at 3 colleges were evaluated on a questionnaire on the relationship between their popularity and their. (1) nicknames, (2) abbreviation names (probably short names such as Pat for Patricia), and (3) first names. Popularity was rated by the social dean’s office. Results indicate that those with nicknames were rated significantly more popular.
  138. Dodgson, John Mc[Neal]. “Two Coals to Newcastle.” Otium et Negotium: Studies in Onomatology and Library Science Presented to Olof von Feilitzen. Acta Bibliothecae Regiae Stockholmiensis 16 (1973): 46–48.
  139. One “coal” is a discussion of the derivation of the name Jubbins, originally a nickname for a pot-man (one who carried beer), ME jubbe ‘a 4-gallon tub.’
  140. Dolores, Juan. “Popago Nicknames.” Essays in Anthropology Presented to A. L. Kroeberin Celebration of his Sixtieth Birthday, June 11, 1936. Ed. J. Alden Mason. Freeport, NY: Books for Libraries P, 1968.
  141. Originally published at Berkeley, CA, in 1936. Pages 45–47 have a few notes. Poor. (Smith)
  142. Duckert, Audrey R. “Nicknames [Notes and Queries].” Names 11 (1963): 74–76.
  143. General on nicknames. Examples from history, crime, sports, academe, the military, and music.
  144. Eberhard, Wolfram. Studies in Chinese Folklore and Related Essays. Indiana University Folklore Institute Monograph Series 23. Bloomington: Indiana University Center for the Language Sciences, 1970.
  145. Devotes Chapter 18 (217–222; references, 278–280) to modern Chinese nicknames and has many examples. Identifies seven types of nickname, including those referring to animals (erh kou-tse ‘dog number 2’), nature objects (huo ho-shan ‘active volcano’), man-made objects (fan-t’ungm ‘food barrel’), anatomy (p’i-pao ku ‘leather bag bone’), prominent figures (Yul Brynner), social roles (shih-mu ‘teacher’s wife’), and personal traits (lien-huan p’i ‘chain farter’).
  146. Ennew, Judith. The Western Isles Today. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1980.
  147. The Western Isles to the west of Scotland include Lewis, the Uists, and Barra. Pages 77–79 describe naming customs. Nicknames are very commonly used and one community (Ness on Lewis) has a telephone directory listing people by nickname. Gaelic names are also used.
  148. Enninger, Werner. “Amish By-Names.” Names 33 (1985): 243–58.
  149. Uses research on Amish names to develop the position that legal names (first names and surnames) are markers of social identity and that by-names (nicknames) are markers for personal identity. Concludes that by-names are a special class of personal names characterized by: (1) a specific act of nomination, (2) linguistic status,and (3) specific role. 34 references.
  150. Estolas, Josefina Villanueva. “Relationship of Nicknames to Filipino Children’s Self-Perception.” Dissertation Abstracts International 25 (1965): 5732–33. University of Nebraska, Lincoln.
  151. Data gathered on 800 children in the Philippines confirmed, among other things, the importance of the nickname in the child’s self-image. Children who disliked their nicknames showed more problems on the self-perception scale.
  152. F., J. L. “Concerning Nicknames.” McClure’s Nov. 1915: 26.
  153. Self-applied nicknames are generally not truthful. Poor. (Smith)
  154. Fay, Edwin W. “Sobriquet and Stem ” American Journal of Philology 38 (1917): 82–87.
  155. Technical. In most languages proper stems are compounded with sobriquets, such as Big Foot Wallace. Uninteresting. Poor. (Smith)
  156. Feiner, Joel S., and Stephan Marc Klein. “Graffiti Talks.” Social Policy 12 (1982): 47–53.
  157. Not yet seen.
  158. Fellows-Jensen, Gillian. “On the Study of Middle English By-Names.” Name och Bygd: Tidskrift for Nordisk Ortnamnsforskning 68 (1980): 102–15.
  159. Critical evaluation of the work of a number of investigators, including Seltén, Tengvik, and Jönsjö. 43 references.
  160. Flom, George T. “Semantic Notes on Characterizing Surnames in Old Norse.” Journal of English and Germanic Philology 19 (1920): 350–64.
  161. Background on Old Norse surnames and nicknames. Discussion of the work of other scholars. Detailed analysis of about 15 names found in Eystein’s Jordebug or in the Norwegian charters. Names discussed include Flik, Olfuss, and Gubba. References.
  162. Foster, George M. “Speech Forms and the Perception of Social Distance in a Spanish-Speaking Mexican Village.” Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 20 (1964): 107–22.
  163. The village investigated was Tzintzuntzan (pop. 2,000), a peasant community 230 miles west of Mexico City on Lake Patzcuaro. Description of forms of address with name, with attention to nicknaming and appropriate use; e.g., Chaparro ‘shorty’ for a man who is short would only be called this to his face by an intimate friend. Some nicknames are inherited.
  164. Fox, J. R. “Structure of Personal Names on Tory Island ’’Man 63 (1963): 153–55.
  165. Confirms the observations of J.M. Synge on the naming practices on the Aran Islands between 1898 and 1902 on Tory Island, Donegal. Each person has three sets of names, a Gaelic ceremonial, an English practical, and a Gaelic-English personal. The Gaelic set includes the baptismal name, followed by “his epithet” (nickname), and the surname. Examples of nicknames are Og ‘young,’ Ban ‘fair,’ and Mor ‘big.’ Two references.
  166. Frank, David. “A Note on Cape Breton Nicknames.” Journal of the Atlantic Provinces Linguistic Association 10 (1988): 54– 63.
  167. Explanation of the development of father-son nicknames in Cape Breton, Nova Scotia. Description of the influence of the rural emigration to coal and steel districts on nicknaming. Many examples, some with explanation of origin. Included are Black Sandy (for his whiskers), Jack the Face (worked on the face of a coal seam), and Sandy Big Pay (once only got paid two cents because of deductions due the company store).
  168. Franklyn, Julian. AiDictionary of Nicknames. London: Hamish Hamilton, 1962.
  169. Lists over 2,000 nicknames mostly from England but including others from Scotland, Ireland, Australia, Canada, and the United States. Among American entries are Kicky ‘hard to please, petulant girl,’ Joe Doakes ‘average American,’ and Rackensack ‘a native of Arkansas.’ 14 references.
  170. Freeman, Susan Tax. Neighbors: The Social Contract in a Castilian Hamlet. Chicago: U of Chicago P,1970.
  171. Valdemora is a small community in Castile, 150 km. northeast of Madrid. Freeman (118–119) indicates that the inhabitants use nicknames not for each other but as boundaries for insiders and outsiders (the town was too small). Nicknames are used when real names are not known, especially for people from neighboring towns.
  172. Freestone, Basil. Harrapfs Book of Nicknames and Their Origins: A Comprehensive Guide to Personal Nicknames in the English-Speaking World. London: Harrap, 1990.
  173. Reviewed in this issue of Names.
  174. Friend, J[ohn Albert] Newton. Words: Tricks and Traditions. New York: Scribner’s, 1957.
  175. Has some information on names. Chapter 3 (32–33) has three anagrams, e.g., Florence Nightingale = Flit on Cheering Angel; Chapter 10 covers nicknames, including the longest one, given by Sir Walter Scott to his printer: Aldiborontiphoscophornio (122).
  176. Fucilla, Joseph G. “Portuguese Nicknames as Surnames.” Names 27 (1979): 73–105.
  177. The number of surnames (apelidos) derived from nicknames (alcunhas) has increased. These new surnames come from several categories (shown with an example), such as kinship (Filho ‘son’), anatomical (Casco ‘skull’), metaphorical (Lobo Svolf), desirable Pio ‘pious’), undesirable Bregante ‘bandit’), atmospheric phenomena (Orvalho ‘mist’), coins (Ouro ‘gold’), and miscellaneous (Taumaturgo ‘magician’). 26 references.
  178. Fucilla, Joseph G. “Spanish Nicknames as Surnames.” Names 26 (1978): 139–76.
  179. Comprehensive analysis, with hundreds of examples, showing the different categories of surnames developed from nicknames. The types shown with an example include kinship (Padre ‘father’), anatomical Carillo ‘cheek’), compound (Matalobos ‘wolf hunter’), metaphorical (Gato ‘cat’), desirable (Esperanza ‘hope’), undesirable (Selvaje ‘savage’), and miscellaneous (Aquado ‘well-soaked’). Eleven references.
  180. Gaye, Arthur. “Ekenames and Nicknames.” National Review Nov. 1889: 371–82.
  181. On nicknames, in England and other countries, of persons and groups of persons. Good. (Smith)
  182. Gerardi, Robert J., and Russell De Frank. “Italian Nicknames as Surnames.” ANS Bulletin No. 70 (1982): 27–31.
  183. Classification of surnames derived from nicknames. Examples include compound names (Giangross ‘fat John’), names from insects (Puccio ‘bug’), and a name from a domestic quadruped (Agnello ‘lamb’).
  184. Gilmore, David D. “Some Notes on Community Nicknaming in Spain.” Man 17 (1982): 686–700.
  185. The research was done in a farming town of about 8,000 in southwest Andalusia. After describing several types of nickname Gilmore explains, “there is a powerful psychic link between the personal name, the way it is used by others and the concept of self.”
  186. Glazier, Jack. “Nicknames and the Transformation of an American Jewish Community: Notes on the Anthropology of Emotion in the Urban Midwest.” Ethnology 26 (1987): 73–85.
  187. The report is based upon the Jewish community (Sephardic and Ashkenzic) of Indianapolis. Contrasts the role of nicknaming in an urban setting with practices in rural Europe.
  188. Goitein, S. D. “Nicknames as Family Names.” Journal of the American Oriental Society 90 (1970): 517–24.
  189. Demonstrates that nicknames as family names go back to the Bible and that Rabbi Hanina (3rd century) and the Koran have injunctions against bad nicknames; then shows that the Cairo Geniza (collection of Jewish documents from the 10th-13th centuries) contains cases where a nickname has become a surname. Examples include ibn Awkal ‘dwarf,’ ibn Misk ‘dark-complexioned,’ and Ben al-Khasisa ‘son of the miserly, mean woman.’ 25 references.
  190. Gordon, David Paul. “Hospital Slang for Patients: Crocks, Gomers, Gorks,and Others.” Language in Society 12 (1983): 173–85.
  191. Systematic explanation of categories of hospital slang; how it is used and what needs it fulfills. A “crock” demands more attention than is warranted; a “gomer” is a socially stigmatized patient; a “gork” is a comatose patient. Many other examples include Beached Whale, Dying Swan, and Lazarus. Three references.
  192. Graybill, Guy. “Dippy, Son of PuddinPennsylvania Folklife 34 (1984–85): 85–89.
  193. Not yet seen.
  194. Grosshandler, Stan. “Where Have All Those Grand Old Nicknames Gone?” Baseball Research Journal 1 (1978): 61–63.
  195. Describes a number of baseball nicknames in loose categories, including home state (Bama Rowell, Jersey Joe Stripp), rural (Cy Young, Rube Walberg), and talkative (Gabby Street, Leo [Lippy] Durocher).
  196. H., J. M. “Names and Nicknames.” Yale Literary Magazine Oct. 1856: 19–23.
  197. Interesting. Fair. (Smith)
  198. Habbe, Stephen. “Nicknames of Adolescent Boys.” American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 7 (1937): 371–77.
  199. Habbe investigated nicknames of a group of New York City schoolboys between 12 and 16. He concludes that nicknames most frequently “are simply name adaptations without significance as caricatures or condensations of outstanding characteristics....” Special attention to hearing handicapped in the sample. Three references. Tables.
  200. Halaby, Raouf, and Carolyn Long. “Future Shout: Name Calling in the Future.” Naughty Names. Ed. Fred Tarpley. Publication 4, South Central Names Institute. Commerce, TX: Names Institute P, 1975. 51–59.
  201. Results of a questionnaire on name-calling. Included are terms such as nixonitis, Wallace-White, Dolphin-Lips ‘someone who talks a lot,’ and Molly Polly ‘a girl who takes drugs known as black mollies.’
  202. Hale, Christopher S. “Modern Icelandic Personal Bynames.” Scan- dinavian Studies 53 (1981): 115–46.
  203. Classification and description of eight categories of by-names from northwest Iceland. Many of the names are derogatory, such as Gopgi (< goes ‘goose’), Kitti (
  204. Hall, Granville Stanley. “Early Sense of Self.” American Journal of Psychology 9 (1898): 351–95.
  205. Considers that names are important in the self-image of the child. Hall classifies more than 50 affectionate names and nicknames, including Chipmunk, Puritan, Bodkins, and Little Boy Blue.
  206. Hanks, Patrick, and Flavia Hodges. A Dictionary of Surnames. Oxford and New York: Oxford UP, 1989.
  207. Scholarly presentation of the origin and meaning of approximately 70,000 names of European and Jewish derivation. A significant percentage of surnames were derived from nicknames such as Longfellow ‘a tall man,’ Kozlov ‘goat’ (referring to a stubborn, lecherous, or foul-smelling person), Prowse ‘a strong warrior.’ Extensive documentation. David L. Gold was the consultant for the Jewish names.
  208. Hargreaves, Reginald. “A Dissertation upon Nicknames.” Chambers’s Journal 8th ser. 13 (1944): 380–82.
  209. General on nicknames. Fair. (Smith)
  210. Harré, Rom. “Living up to One’s Name.” Personality. Ed. Rom Harré. Oxford: Blackwell, 1976. 44–60.
  211. General discussion of the naming process, attention to nicknames. Six references.
  212. Harré, Rom. “What’s in a Nickname?” Psychology Today Jan. 1980: 78–84.
  213. Summary of a four-year study of children’s nicknames in Britain and other countries.
  214. Names such as Four Eyes, Grasshopper, and Concorde establish status and norms of behavior. Three references.
  215. Harris, Ron. “What’s in a Nickname?” Ebony July 1979: 76ff.
  216. Information on nicknames of about 35 prominent individuals, including Judge William (Turkey) Thompson, McKinley (Muddy Waters) Morganfield, Martin Luther (Little Mike) King, Jr., and Dr. Benjamin (Buck Benny) Mays.
  217. Hazen, Barbara Shook. Last, FirstiMiddle, and Nick; All About Names. Illustrated, by Sam Weissman. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice- Hall, 1979.
  218. General introduction to many aspects of names. Juvenile level.
  219. Hazlitt, William Carew. “On Nicknames.” Edinburgh Magazine 3 (i.e., Scots Magazine 82) Sept. 1818: 240–45. General.
  220. Interesting. Good. (Smith)
  221. Hench, Atcheson L. “The Hat, The Voice, etc.” American Speech 21 (1946): 157–58.
  222. On a few nicknames like The Feet, The Leer, etc. Fair. (Smith)
  223. Hendley, W. Clark. “What’s Your Handle, Good Buddy? Names of Citizen Band Users ."American Speech 54 (1979): 307–10.
  224. The use of handles allows the CBer to select his or her own nickname. Most male CBers select names with a macho spirit (Magic Man, Tom Cat)i Female CBers have names such as Lucky Lady or Motor Mouth.
  225. Henderson, Hamish. “Bynames Among the Tinkers.” Scottish Studies 6 (1962): 95–96.
  226. Scots tinkers use nicknames widely. Some individuals have two nicknames, one used to the man’s face, the other when he is not around. 24 nicknames are listed, including Scrappin’ John, Love-in-a-Close, and Vinegar Bottle.
  227. Herndon, Marcia Alice. “Singing and Politics: Maltese Folk Music and Musicians.” Dissertation Abstracts International 32 (1971): 2496B. Tulane University.
  228. Analysis of the song duel of Maltese folk music shows the role of the nickname, surname, and first name in determining the status of members of singing groups. Herndon lists about 15 specific nicknames, such as Bambinu ‘Christ child,’ Qamar ‘moon’ and Mor- tudell ‘luncheon meat.’ (Nicknames are discussed on pages 193,237–244, and 311–314 of the original dissertation, which has 89 references.)
  229. Herndon, Marcia Alice, and Norma McLeod. The Use of Nicknames as Evaluators of Personal Competence in Malta: Sociolinguistic Working Paper. Austin, TX: Southwest Educational Development Lab., 1972. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 252 075)
  230. Pages 9–15 deal with nicknames. In communities where surnames are common, nicknames of four types are used. Examples include Tat-Taxi ‘of the taxi,’ II Qamar ‘the moon,’ Bocci ‘marbles,’ and Fredu Taz-Zabbar ‘Fred from Zabar.’
  231. Hjertstedt, Ingrid. Middle English Nicknames in the Lay Subsidy Rolls for Warwickshire. Uppsala: Uppsala UP,1987.
  232. Not yet seen.
  233. Hooper, J. E. “Nicknames.” Old Cornwall 4 (1945): 124–25.
  234. On Cornish nicknames. Fair. (Smith)
  235. Horn, Jack C. “Jolting Joe Has Left and Gone Away.” Psychology Today June 1985: 70–71.
  236. Summary of and comment on Skipper’s 1981 work on the decline of nicknames for baseball players. Photos.
  237. Hoyer, Eva. “Nicknames in Northern Spain.” Folk [Copenhagen] 18 (1976): 103–11.
  238. Every adult has a good-tempered nickname, and “many have one or more spiteful ones...”(107). Nicknames serve two functions: (1) to distinguish a person from others with the same name and (2) to serve as outlets for aggression. Hoyer gives about 15 examples,including El Catalan ‘from Cataluna,’ El Carpintero ‘the carpenter,’ Orejas ‘ears’ (has big ears), and Horma ‘ant’ (she is small). References.
  239. Hursky, Jacob P. “The Patronymic Surnames in Ukrainian.” Dissertation Abstracts 17 (1957): 1331. University of Pennsylvania.
  240. Systematic analysis of surnames. Includes surnames derived from first name, occupation, social status, ethnic origin, and nicknames.
  241. Hyamson, Albert Montefiore. A Dictionary of English Phrases: Speech and Metaphors, NicknamesiSobriquets, Derivations from Personal Names, etc., with Explanations and Thousands of Exact References to their Sources or Early Usage. London, Routledge; New York: Dutton, 1922.
  242. A dictionary that includes many words derived from men’s names. Fair. (Smith)
  243. Iszaevich, Abraham. “Household Renom: The Traditional Naming System in Catalonia.” Ethnology 19 (1980): 315–25.
  244. The research was done in Barbaré, a Catalonian village in Tarragona, Spain. Discussion of the custom in this community of using the “renom,” the household name. The renom can be used as a term of either reference or address and can be applied to any member of the household. Differentiation between renom and nickname. References.
  245. “Italian Nicknames.” American 23 Feb. 1889: 303.
  246. About the large number of Italian artists known only by nicknames. Fair. (Smith)
  247. “Italian Nicknames” [Contributors’ Club]. Atlantic Monthly Feb. 1889: 282–83.
  248. Comment on the Italian use of nicknames or sopranomi. Several references to artists.
  249. Examples include Verocchio ‘blue-eyed,’ Lorenzo del Sarto ‘the tailor’s Lawrence,’ and II Zucco ‘the squash.’
  250. Jackdaw [Pseudonym]. “Our Nicknames.” John O'London’s Weekly 5 Mar. 1932: 878.
  251. Fair. (Smith)
  252. Jackson, Bruce. “Prison Nicknames.” Western Folklore 26 (1967): 48–54. Based upon a visit to a prison near Houston, Texas, Jackson lists and describes 16 guard nicknames, such as Two Bone and Capt. Easy, and 15 white inmate names, such as Cat Man and Blanket Ass. He also lists over 80 black nicknames, such as Bear, Fat Cat, and Foot.
  253. Jacobs, Leland B. “Helping Children Understand Name-Calling.” Elementary English 30 (1953): 337–40.
  254. Introduction to naming for children. Differentiates between positive types of name-calling (nicknames), e.g.,Screwball, Mutt, and harmful types, e.g., Double Crosser, Road Hog.
  255. Jacobs, Leland B. “Helping Children Understand Name-Calling.” Education Digest 19 (1953): 6–7.
  256. Shorter version of article above.
  257. James, Allison. “The Game of the Name: Nicknames in the Child’s World.” New Society 14 June 1979: 632–34.
  258. A semi-popular description and discussion of a large number of nicknames of British schoolchildren. Includes descriptions of the origins of the nicknames and their impact on other people.
  259. Jenkins, Dan. “Everything but the Kitchen Sink.” Playboy Mar. 1986: 2.
  260. Reacting to Chicago Bears football player William “The Refrigerator” Perry, Jenkins suggests that other teams might come up with names such as Bob Barcolounger Bates and Vinny Vacuum Cleaner Gambino.
  261. Jensen, Gillian Fellows. See Fellows-Jensen, Gillian.
  262. Jones, Gwilim Peredur. “A List of Epithets from Welsh Pedigrees.” Bulletin of the Board of Celtic Studies 3 (1926): 31–48.
  263. List of Welsh nicknames with their meanings. Good. (Smith)
  264. Jönsjö. Jan. Studies on Middle English Nicknames. Lund: Gleerup,1979.
  265. After an introduction to Middle English (AD 1100–1400) nicknames, Jönsjö gives background, meaning, and citations for approximately 1,200 “nicknames” from six northern counties and Lincolnshire. Examples a re Barlicom ‘one who sells com,’ Barfoot ‘one who walks barefoot,’ and Wytekake ‘one who sells white bread.’ It appears that many of these nicknames are now surnames. Hundreds of citations for names. More than 100 references. List of Old English and Middle English name elements.
  266. Joyce, Patrick Weston. “Irish Personal and Family Names.” The Origin and History of Irish Names of Places. Dublin: McGlashan and Gill,1875. 156–163.
  267. Chapter 9 is on Irish nicknames. Fair. (Smith)
  268. Junod, Henri Alexandre. “About Thonga Names, Nicknames and Surnames.” The Life of a South African Tribe. Neuchâtel, Switzerland, 1913. 1 (Appendix II): 474–76.
  269. General on Thonga (South Africa) names. Interesting. Good. (Smith)
  270. K., J. “A Table of Nick-Names, or English Christian Names Shortened.” A New English Dictionary. London, 1713. Final 2 pages.
  271. By John Kersey (?). Only in the above edition and later editions. Short. Fair. (Smith)
  272. Kalcik, Susan J. “Women’s Handles and the Performance of Identity in the CB Community.” Women’s Folklore, Women’s Culture. Ed. Susan J. Kalcik and Rosan A. Jordan. Philadelphia: U of Pennsylvania P,1985. 99–108.
  273. Not yet seen.
  274. Kane, Eileen. “Man and Kin in Donegal: A Study of Kinship Function in a Rural Irish and Irish American Community.” Ethnology 7 (1968): 245–58.
  275. The Cashel (pseudonym) is an isolated village (pop. 300). Kane (238) briefly describes “string names” (nicknames) used for identification. Examples include Pat the Clock, Black John, and Blue Mold.
  276. Kane, Harnett Thomas. The Bayous of Louisiana. New York: William Morrow, 1943.
  277. Several pages (173–76) are devoted to “Naming Acadian Children and Their Nicknames.” Interesting. Fair. (Smith)
  278. Katranides, Aristotle. “Some Rules for Modern Greek Nicknames.” Word 26 (1970): 402–09.
  279. Not yet seen.
  280. Kealey, Robert J. Everyday Issues Related to Justice and Other Gospel Values. Washington, DC: National Catholic Educational Association, 1984. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 259 981)
  281. Among the lessons for children dealing with daily situations such as stealing, cheating in school, and waste of food is one on unkind nicknames.
  282. Kenny, Michael. A Spanish Tapestry: Town and Country in Castile. London: Cohen and West, 1961.
  283. Kenny (86–87) describes type and function of nicknames, including their inheritance by males and females. Several examples, including El Corcho ‘the cork,’ Santiago el Tumbas ‘James the Death’ (a grave digger), and El Matasanos ‘the killer of the healthy’ (used for a male nurse and the doctor).
  284. “Kingly Nicknames.” The Girl’s Own Paper 5 (1884): 231.
  285. Fair. (Smith)
  286. Kingsbury, Stewart, and Millie Kingsbury. “Jazz Babies and Flying Sheiks: Cultural Reflections in USNA Nicknames of the Roaring Twenties.” Publications of the North Central Name Society No. 1 (1987): 161–72.
  287. First author’s own experience with being nicknamed at the Naval Academy. More than 75 nicknames taken from Annapolis yearbooks of the 20s are listed, many with origin. Included are Jazz Baby, Stud, Flaming Youth, and Shimmy.
  288. Kohl, Herbert, and James Hinton. Golden Boy as Anthony Cool: A Photo Essay on Naming and Graffiti. New York: Dial P, 1972.
  289. Description, with comment, of graffiti from several places including New York City and Chicago. Included are a number of nicknames such as Anthony Cool, 1/2 Pint, and Feo. 18 references.
  290. Langenfeit, Gösta. “The Hypocoristic English Suffix -s.” Studia Neophilologica 14 (1941–42): 197–213.
  291. On nurse names. Good. (Smith)
  292. Latham, Edward. A Dictionary of Names, Nicknames and Surnames. London: Routledge; New York: Dutton, 1904.
  293. Gives a little about each. Fair. (Smith)
  294. Lave, J[ean Elizabeth] C[arter]. “Social Taxonomy Among the Krikati (Gê) of Central Brazil.” Diss. Harvard University, 1967.
  295. Chapter 5 (133–191) reviews literature on naming in primitive societies, then goes on to describe the Krikatí” procedure in which sisters and brothers exchange names for their cross-sexed children. The tribe also has complex “name sets,” several people having the same name. Nicknames also described. References (324–31).
  296. Lawson, Edwin D. “Personal Names: 100 Years of Social Science Contributions.” Names 32 (1984): 45–73; 34 (1986): 89–90.
  297. A survey of over 260 contributions from the fields of anthropology, psychology, psychiatry, psychoanalysis, and sociology, as well as geography and history. Includes first names, alias names, hypocoristic (short names such as Bill), Jrs., nicknames, surnames, twin names, and unique names. Psychiatrists/psychoanalysts include Abraham, Freud, Kraepelin, and Reik; psychologists, Allport, Brüning, Busse, English, Garwood, Holt, and Zweigenhaft.
  298. Lawson, Edwin D. comp. Personal Names and Naming: An Annotated Bibliography. Westport, CT: Greenwood; London: Westport Publications, 1987.
  299. Picks up where Smith (1952) left off. Contains approximately 1,200 entries on all aspects of personal names.
  300. Lawson, Edwin D. “Social Psychological Aspects of Personal-Naming.” Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Council for Names Studies in Great Britain and Ireland. Swansea, Wales, March, 1988. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 298 570)
  301. Covers the contributions of social psychology and personality to naming. Nicknames included. Approximately 180 references.
  302. Layton, Robert. “Patterns of Informal Interaction in Pellaport.” Gifts and Poisons. Ed. Frederick George Bailey. Oxford: Blackwell, 1971. 97–118.
  303. Pellaport (pop. 250) is a small village in the northern French Jura. Brief passing description (106–107) of how ungracious people were mocked by being called nicknames such as, The Customs Official, The Seigneur, and The Pasha.
  304. Leeds-Hurwitz, Wendy. The Use and Analysis of Uncommon Forms of Address: A Business Example. Austin, TX: Southwest Educational Development Lab., 1980. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 200 049)
  305. Description of the forms of address in an industrial setting. Has the case history of a female executive. Includes use of the first name, nickname, and title and surname.
  306. Lewis, Margaret Jane. “Some Nicknames and their Derivations.” Mississippi Folklore Register 4 (1970): 52–57.
  307. Reports a campus study of 300 nicknames. Categories include: physical characteristics,30% (Porky, Ears)i first name derivatives, 15% (Flo
  308. Lieber, G. Norman. “Nicknames.” United States Service Magazine 5 (1866): 503–16.
  309. Good. (Smith)
  310. Limon, José. The Folk Performance of Chicano and the Cultural Limits of Political Ideology. Austin, TX: Southwest Educational Development Lab., 1979.
  311. While mostly directed at the usage of the term chicano, there are references to individual nicknames and their usage (15, 19). Examples include El Chueco ‘the bent one,’ La Ardilla ‘the squirrel,’ and El Profe ‘the professor.’
  312. Littleton, Adam. “Nick-Names, or Abbreviatures of English Christian Names.” A Latine Dictionary. London, 1678. N. pag; 1 page, just before Part II.
  313. List of nicknames in seventeenth century. Good. (Smith)
  314. Lohr, Steve. “Filipinos Take Nicknames, But Not Seriously.” New York Times 5 Feb. 1985: A10.
  315. Nicknames of prominent people include Joker Rroyo, a lawyer; Bong Bong Marcos, son of the former president; Ding Dong Teehankee, a Supreme Court judge; and Butz Aquino, brother of Benigno Aquino, Jr.
  316. Loizos, Peter. The Greek Gift: Politics in a Greek Village. New York: St. Martin’s; Oxford: Blackwell, 1975.
  317. Since many villagers have the same first name and some have identical first and surname, nicknames serve to differentiate (96–97). In contrast to some other cultures, they are used to the owner’s face. Examples include The Bat, The Cheese-Eater, and The Fat Man.
  318. Lomax, Ruby Terrill. “Negro Nicknames.” Backwoods to Border. Ed. J. Frank Dobie. Publications of the Texas Folklore Society, No. 18. Dallas: Southern Methodist UP,1943.163–71.
  319. Collection with some discussion and explanation of about 200 nicknames mostly from black convicts. Some categories and examples are color (Red, Blue, Midnight), physical appearance (Peewee, Lighthouse, Macaroni), deformity (Wing, Crab-Finger), and crime (Porch-Climber, Confidence)i
  320. Loustalot, Kenneth. “Acadian Names and Nicknames.” Attakapas Gazette 7 (1972): 170–81.
  321. Naming customs among the Acadians of Breaux Bridge and other Louisiana communities. Some of the 100 nicknames are Zoonta, Pea Shoot, and Carencro.
  322. Lutterer, Ivan. “On the Nicknames of Inhabitants in Czech Place- Names.” Proceedings of the Eighth International Congress of Onomastic Sciences. The Hague: Mouton, 1966. 289–94.
  323. Not yet seen.
  324. Lutz, George Winston. “Play, Intimacy and Conflict Resolution; Interpersonal Determinants of Marital Adaptation.” Dissertation Abstracts International 43 (1983): 1991B. Northwestern University.
  325. Nicknames are included in this study of the informal play behavior of couples in relation to marital adaptation.
  326. Lux. “Tee-Names in Fishing Villages in Scotland.” Scottish Notes and Queries 3rd ser. Mar. 1929: 58.
  327. There being so few surnames in Scottish fishing villages, nicknames are the general rule. Good. (Smith)
  328. M., A. M. “Tee-Names in Scottish Fishing Communities: Nairn.” Scottish Notes and Queries 3rd ser. Apr. 1929: 68.
  329. Short. Fair. (Smith)
  330. M., M. F. “Tee-Names and Trifles.” Word-Lore 2 (1927): 204–05.
  331. Short. A little on tee-names. Fair. (Smith)
  332. MacColl, Ewan, and Peggy Seeger. Till Doomsday in the Afternoon: The Folklore of a Family of Scots Travellers, the Stewarts of Blairgowrie. Manchester, Engl.: Manchester UP,1986.
  333. The Travellers are apparently itinerant workers and entertainers. Pages 21–23 describe family nicknames, e.g., “...the Higginses are sometimes called the Slaweiy Higgins, because the’re aye dreepin’ at the mooth”(22). Several other examples as well.
  334. Macaulay, Rose. “Bad Names.” Saturday Review 145 (1928): 553- 54.
  335. On opprobrious names given people. Of little value. Fair. (Smith)
  336. MacLeay, John. “Adam’s Ale and the Forky-Tail.” Scots Magazine 112 (1980): 530–34.
  337. Light approach to all kinds of nicknames. Includes some for people, e.g., Bonnie Charlie, Kate Bar Lass, and Wizard of the North. Illustrations.
  338. Manning, Frank C. “Nicknames and Number Plates in the British West Indies.” Journal of American Folklore 87 (1974): 123–32.
  339. Nicknames such as Froggie, Cracker, and Kingfisher are common among West Indian men and, to a lesser extent, women, and these nicknames often appear on license plates. License plate numbers such as J2415 (standing for Book of Joshua, Chapter 24, Verse 15) are also used widely as identifiers as in dance announcements and death notices. Both types of names are functional where only a few surnames are shared by the majority of the population. 16 references.
  340. Masin, Herman. “What’s in a Nickname?” Scholastic 11 Sept. 1944: 34.
  341. Nicknames of some baseball players and how they were acquired. Fair. (Smith)
  342. Mathews, William. Words: Their Use and Abuse. Chicago: Scott, Fores- man, 1898.
  343. Pages 345–66 refer to nicknames. General. Interesting. Good. (Smith)
  344. Maurer, David W., and Allan W. Futrell. “Criminal Monickers.” American Speech 57 (1982): 243–55.
  345. Discussion of origin and development of monickers (names used in criminal subcultures). Listing of over 80 monickers such as Gold-Tooth Kelley and Whitey Reno. Seven references.
  346. McAuliffe, E. C. “Names Will Never Hurt Your Ave Maria ns 49 (1939): 525–26.
  347. On calling names. Poor. (Smith)
  348. McClure. Peter. “Nicknames and Petnames: Linguistic Forms and Social Contexts.” Nomina 5 (1981): 63–76.
  349. Discusses sociolinguistic aspects of naming and sets up a classification. There are two major sub-types of nicknames: secondary forms of official names and primary nicknames (four categories). Against this system the work of the Opies and Morgan,et al. is evaluated. 21 references.
  350. McDowell, John H. “Toward a Semiotics of Nicknaming: The Kamsâ Example.” Journal of American Folklore 94 (1981): 1–18.
  351. The Kamsá tribe of Indians (pop. 3,000) live in the Sibundoy Valley of Southwestern Colombia. They have 4 names: (1) legal, including first name and surname, (2) kinship terms used for address, (3) garden names, and (4) ugly names,derogatory names not used in the person’s presence. Few examples.
  352. McGeachy, John, III. “Student Nicknames for College Faculty.” Western Folklore 37 (1978): 281–96.
  353. Reports from two higher education institutions, Setrales [a pseudonym?] and State University. Questionnaires were circulated and students were asked to supply surnames for nicknames and to make comments. Extensive listing of nicknames, e.g., Groucho Marx (glasses and cigar), Bashful (one of the seven Dwarfs).
  354. Mekeel, Scudder. “Names.” Walapai Ethnography. Ed. A. L. Kroeber. Memoirs of the American Anthropological Association, No. 42, 1935. 128–29.
  355. The Walapai live in northwest Arizona. Brief mention of their naming patterns. Most names are accidentally acquired nicknames. Effort to make certain no one else has the same name. No examples.
  356. Michaels, Ken. “The Good Old Nicknames: Where Are They Now?” Chicago Tribune Magazine 12 May 1968: 72–73.
  357. Nostalgic description of about 50 nicknames from the old neighborhood. Included are Marty Meter-Reader, Frog Jaws, The Atheist, and The Toilet-Flusher.
  358. Miran, M. Alam. Naming and Address in Afghan Society. 1975. (ERIC Documentation Service No. ED 109 915)
  359. Description of Afghani (Afghan Persian, or Dari) naming patterns and practices; first and second names, differences between girls’ and boys’ names; kinship names; ox-names, nicknames, technonyms, honorific titles, surnames, and patterns of address. Examples.
  360. Monagan, Charles. “Sweet Nothings.” Saturday Evening Post May-June 1986:14.
  361. Monagan’s reactions to his wife’s calling him Honey. Illustrated.
  362. Monteiro, George. “Alcunhas Among the Portuguese in Southern New England.” Western Folklore 20 (1961): 103–07.
  363. The term alcunhas can refer either to nicknames or substitute surnames. Examples are drawn from the Blackstone Valley area of Rhode Island. One family was known as os Fumegas ‘smokers.’ Individuals had names such as Gago ‘stutterer,’ Torto ‘cockeye,’ or Milhomens ‘1000 men.’ Many further examples. Five references.
  364. Mook, Maurice A. “Nicknames Among the Amish.” Names 15 (1967): 111–18.
  365. Since the Amish have a limited number of surnames, nicknames help differentiate individuals.Among the eight types are name shortening, as Samuel to Sam;physical trait, Big Ben; behavior, Grumpy Aaron; relating to an incident, usually humorous; and using a middle initial with first name, Iksie (IsaaciZ.).
  366. Morgan, Jane, Christopher O’Neill, and Rom Harré. Nicknames: Their Origins and Social Consequences. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1979.
  367. The nicknaming of a child is important in understanding social development and entiy into the adult world. The authors discuss the definition of nicknames (ekenames) and petnames; nicknaming in school; lack of a nickname; nicknaming as a norm, as a form of social control, and as an insult. Accounts are also given of nicknaming in other cultures, as Japan, the Arab world, Spain, and Ceylon. 48 references.
  368. Moses, Rafael, and Daniel X. Freedman. “‘Trademark’ Function of Symptoms in a Mental Hospital.” Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases 127 (1958): 448–57.
  369. Nicknames may also serve the magical function of inducing certain desired qualities. Nicknames based on behavioral traits (Sunny, Chief) seem often to act as prescriptions for a role the child is to follow. Five references.
  370. Mossman, Jennifer, ed. Pseudonyms and Nicknames, 2nd ed. Detroit: Gale Research,1980.
  371. According to the editor, the work contains 17,000 original names and 22,000 assumed names. Authors account for 40%; entertainers, 55%. Entries give original name, birth date, and where appropriate, death date, nationality, and occupation. 15 references.
  372. Mossman, Jennifer, ed. New Pseudonyms and Nicknames. Issue No. 1. Detroit: Gale Research,1983.
  373. Not yet seen.
  374. Nakhimovsky, A. D. “Social Forms of Address in Contemporary Russian.” International Review of Slavic Linguistics 1 (1976): 79–118. Not yet seen.
  375. “Names.” Milledulcia. R. C. Pell. New York, 1857.26–27.
  376. On a few English pet-names. Short. Fair. (Smith)
  377. “Names —Nicknames.” Recreative Review [London] 1 (1821): 60–68.
  378. Anecdotes on names and nicknames. Interesting. Fair. (Smith)
  379. Nash, Gilbert. “Names and Nicknames.” Bay State Monthly [Boston] Feb. 1885: 255–60.
  380. Fairly good on nicknames. Fair. (Smith)
  381. Nash, Gilbert. “Names and Nicknames.” Granite Monthly [Concord, NH] Mar. 1885: 255–50.
  382. Names and nicknames arising from them. Interesting. Good. (Smith)
  383. Nelson, Lawrence E. “Derelict Names.” Words Sept. 1941: 76–77.
  384. Poor. (Smith)
  385. Nemy, Enid. “New Yorkers, etc.” New York Times 23 Aug. 1987: A58.
  386. How several people acquired their nicknames, including Lenny (Nails) Dykstra of the New York Mets, Frances (Shang) Ferguson Paterson, and Calvin (Kins) Tompkins.
  387. New York Public Library. “Nicknames.” Dictionary Catalog of the Research LibrariesiVol. NEW–NZZ. New York, 1979.
  388. Page 283 has a listing of ten nickname items.
  389. Newman, Edwin. “Real Election Issue: Do Nicknames Work?” New York Times 27 Oct. 1982: A27.
  390. Description of the shift to “nicknames” (really short names and affectionate names) from original given names, James to Jimmy (Carter), Robert to Bob (Dole), Anthony Wedgwood Benn to Tony Benn.
  391. [Newman, Jeremiah Whitaker]. “Names and Surnames.”^ New Volume of the Lounger’s Common-Place Book. London, 1807. 4: 140–45.
  392. Chiefly on nicknames, Roman, Greek, French, Polish, etc., and English kings. Fair. (Smith)
  393. “Nicknames.” The Etonian 3rd ed. 1 (1823): 81–88.
  394. General. Fair. (Smith)
  395. “Nicknames Are as Old as Ancient Egypt.” [What’s on Your Mind]. Science Digest Nov. 1952: 35.
  396. Reports a lecture by John A. Wilson of the University of Chicago. Lists common nicknames such as Red, Baldy, Lazy, Donkey, Nosy, and The Cat.
  397. “Nicknames in Philippine Elections.” American Bar Association Journal 24 (1938): 412.
  398. Short. Fair. (Smith)
  399. “Nicknames in Washington.” Literary Digest 8 Mar. 1930: 41.
  400. A few nicknames of important men in Washington. Poor. (Smith)
  401. “Nicknames of Royalties.” Harper's Weekly 16 Nov. 1907: 1705.
  402. Short. Poor. (Smith)
  403. “The Nicknames of the ‘Old Masters.”’ All the Year Round 3rd ser. 1 (1869): 341–45.
  404. On the nicknames by which the famous Italian and other painters are known today. Interesting. Good. (Smith)
  405. “Nicknames Our Heroes Wear.” World Review 8 Apr. 1929: 143.
  406. A short article giving the nicknames of well-known people. Interesting. Fair. (Smith)
  407. “No More a Nickname Nation.” [Editorial]. New York Times 6 Feb. 1985: A22.
  408. Editorial comment on the decline of nicknames in the US, although sports still has some.
  409. Noble, [Wilfred] Vernon. Nicknames: Past and Present. London: Hamish Hamilton, 1976.
  410. Contains approximately 775 nicknames for people, place, and events. A large percentage are for people, e.g., Sophie Tucker as Last of the Red Hot Mommas. Some have become words (havelock ‘a covering for a soldier’s cap used to protect the neck in warm climates,’ after Sir Heniy Havelock, an officer in India; Jacobites ‘those who supported James II of the Stuarts after he fled to France in 1688’ (James < Heb. Jacob)i
  411. Nordenskiöld, Erland. AniHistorical and Ethnological Survey of the Cuna Indians. Comparative Ethnographical Studies 10. Göteborg, Sweden: Göteborgs Museum, 1938.
  412. The Cuna Indians live in Panama. Pages 380–84 describe some of their naming customs. Indians have animal names; a man is reluctant to pronounce his own name; nicknames are used only among good friends.
  413. Notopoulos, James A. “The Name of Plato.” Classical Philology 34 (1939): 135–45.
  414. On Greek names. Fair. (Smith)
  415. Nsimbi, M. “African Surnames.” Makere [Kampala] 3 (1949): 17–20.
  416. Naming among the Baganda of Uganda. Brief description of eight types of names: proverbial and nicknames, titles, automatic (for twins, first-born), romantic, locative, derived from gods and goddesses, royal clan,and clan. Examples.
  417. Ó Dånachair, Caoimhin. “Auxiliary Family Names.” Hereditas. Ed. Bo Alqvist, Breandán Mac Aodha, and Gearóid Mac Eoin. Dublin: Folklore of Ireland Society, 1975. 228–32.
  418. In rural areas of Ireland, surnames such as O’Sullivan are so common that auxiliary names are used. Some combine a father and son’s name: The Sean Thaidhgs, The Paddy Jimeens. Others come from occupations: The Troopers, The Piss Gatherers. Several types described with examples. Influence of nicknames mentioned.
  419. Obelos. “Nicknames of Generals.” Miscellaneous Notes and Queries 2 April 1885: 541–42.
  420. Chiefly a list. Fair. (Smith)
  421. Olding, W. H. “Personal Nicknames.” Gentleman’s Magazine 254 (ns 30) Jan. 1883: 35–50.
  422. A rambling account of classical and English nicknames with some material on change of name. Fair. (Smith)
  423. Opie, Peter. “Children’s Derogatory Epithets.” Journal of American Folklore 83 (1970): 354–55.
  424. Comment on Winslow.
  425. Opie, Iona, and Peter Opie. Lore and Language of Schoolchildren. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1961.
  426. Some verses of British schoolchildren associated with nicknames, such as “What’s your name? Baldy Bain; What’s your ither? Ask ma mither” (156–60); epithets, bag o’bones (167–72); onomancy, divination of the future on the basis of a name in children’s games (336–37). Four specific references, plus sources for the verses.
  427. Orgel, Samuel Z., and Jacob Tuckman. “Nicknames of Institutional Children.” American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 5 (1935): 276–85.
  428. Study of nicknames of 235 boys and 75 girls in an institutional setting. Nicknames serve five functions: approval, punishment, depreciation, revenge, and therapy. Children classified in the normal group use affectionate nicknames and less objectionable names more than those in the problem group. Except for the affectionate nicknames,the nickname is a source of much unhappiness. One reference.
  429. Oswald, F. L. “Historical Nicknames.” North American Review 161 (August 1895): 254–56.
  430. The public nicknames of famous persons. Fair. (Smith)
  431. Pacanowsky, Michael, and James A. Anderson. “Cop Talk and Media Use.” Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the International Communication Association. Minneapolis, May 1981. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 207 110)
  432. Investigation of the radio talk of 25 peace officers in a community of 10,000. One of the major aspects of the paper is the use of nicknames, especially those drawn from the media. Some of the job-related nicknames mentioned are Bogart, Mr. Bill, and Kojak.
  433. Parker, Dan. “What’s in a Nickname?” Sportfolio May 1947:17–18.
  434. Persons prominent in sports. Fair. (Smith)
  435. Parman, Susan. “General Properties of Naming, and a Specific Case of Nicknaming in the Scottish Outer Hebrides.” Ethnos 41 (1976): 99–115.
  436. The investigation was conducted in the village of Shawbost, 18 miles from Stornoway on the Isle of Lewis. Description of naming and nicknaming practices. Types of nickname include place (Iain Fhibhig) and Gaelic (Tasag ‘ghost’). Many examples. References.
  437. Parsons, Elsie Clews. “Zuñi Names and Naming Practices.” Journal of American Folk-Lore 36 (1923): 171–76.
  438. Zuñis have many nicknames. Fair. (Smith)
  439. Partridge, Eric [Honeywood]. “Nicknames.” Dictionary of Slang and Unconventional English. 3rd ed. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1949; New York: Macmillan, 1950.
  440. Includes about 500 nicknames. Fair. (Smith)
  441. Partridge, Eric [Honeywood]. “Inseparable Nicknames.” HereiThere, and Everywhere. London: Hamilton, 1950. 21–27.
  442. Nicknames are usually associated with other names, as Tug Wilson or Taffy for a Welshman. Interesting. Good. (Smith)
  443. Payton, Geoffrey. ed. Webster’s Dictionary of Proper Names. S